Fritz Sauckel at the 1945–1946 Nuremberg TrialsFritz Sauckel at the 1945–1946 Nuremberg Trials

Fritz Sauckel: ‘Humans More Primitive Than Machines’

Coming from pretty humble origins - being the only child of a postman and seamstress - it’s unlikely that Ernst Friedrich Christoph “Fritz” Sauckel, ever imagined, while a child, that he would grow up to be a slave owner. Presumably he never dreamt of such a thing during his adolescence, joining the Merchant Navy aged 15 in 1909 and sailing in Swedish, Norwegian and German ships. He became a first-class sailor - which shows he wasn’t afraid of hard work - rising to the rank of Able Seaman. It was Nazism that made him a slave owner and a criminal.

Fritz Sauckel at the 1945–1946 Nuremberg TrialsFritz Sauckel at the 1945–1946 Nuremberg Trials

Fritz Sauckel: ‘Humans More Primitive Than Machines’

Coming from pretty humble origins - being the only child of a postman and seamstress - it’s unlikely that Ernst Friedrich Christoph “Fritz” Sauckel, ever imagined, while a child, that he would grow up to be a slave owner. Presumably he never dreamt of such a thing during his adolescence, joining the Merchant Navy aged 15 in 1909 and sailing in Swedish, Norwegian and German ships. He became a first-class sailor - which shows he wasn’t afraid of hard work - rising to the rank of Able Seaman. It was Nazism that made him a slave owner and a criminal.

Irma Grese, leader of the women's Waffen SS at Belsen and assistant to Josef  Kramer, the Beast of Belsen, seen wearing placard no. 9 on her chest, during the War Crime Trials at Lueneburg, Germany, Sept. 17, 1945. Wardens at Belsen Hertha Ehlert, wearing no. 8 and Ilse Lithe, no. 10, sit either side of Irma Grese. Irma Grese, leader of the women's Waffen SS at Belsen and assistant to Josef  Kramer, the Beast of Belsen, seen wearing placard no. 9 on her chest, during the War Crime Trials at Lueneburg, Germany, Sept. 17, 1945. Wardens at Belsen Hertha Ehlert, wearing no. 8 and Ilse Lithe, no. 10, sit either side of Irma Grese.

‘Frau Lampshade’, ‘The Stomping Mare’ and Others

Today we know the names of several dozen female Nazi criminals whose deeds could horrify the most diehard reader. We’ve picked the worst of the worst, although some of them managed to live to a ripe old age and die free.

Irma Grese, leader of the women's Waffen SS at Belsen and assistant to Josef  Kramer, the Beast of Belsen, seen wearing placard no. 9 on her chest, during the War Crime Trials at Lueneburg, Germany, Sept. 17, 1945. Wardens at Belsen Hertha Ehlert, wearing no. 8 and Ilse Lithe, no. 10, sit either side of Irma Grese. Irma Grese, leader of the women's Waffen SS at Belsen and assistant to Josef  Kramer, the Beast of Belsen, seen wearing placard no. 9 on her chest, during the War Crime Trials at Lueneburg, Germany, Sept. 17, 1945. Wardens at Belsen Hertha Ehlert, wearing no. 8 and Ilse Lithe, no. 10, sit either side of Irma Grese.

‘Frau Lampshade’, ‘The Stomping Mare’ and Others

Today we know the names of several dozen female Nazi criminals whose deeds could horrify the most diehard reader. We’ve picked the worst of the worst, although some of them managed to live to a ripe old age and die free.

Obersalzberg, the Goebbels family visit Adolf Hitler, "Der Führer" is back in Obersalzberg. Doctor Goebbels and his wife, accompanied by their children Helga, Hilde and HelmutObersalzberg, the Goebbels family visit Adolf Hitler, "Der Führer" is back in Obersalzberg. Doctor Goebbels and his wife, accompanied by their children Helga, Hilde and Helmut

‘Hitler Was Centre of Our Lives’: Confessions of Nazi Criminals’ Wives

“I was unable to understand how the wives of all those sitting in the dock not only could meet them every day at home, sit with them at the same table and share their joys and sorrows, but also could whisper tender words to them, accept their caresses and love them and give birth to their children. I have never doubted that the wives were in the know about the criminal acts of their husbands”. From Tatyana Stupnikova’s book titled “Nothing but the truth. Nuremberg Trials. Memoirs of a Translator”.

Obersalzberg, the Goebbels family visit Adolf Hitler, "Der Führer" is back in Obersalzberg. Doctor Goebbels and his wife, accompanied by their children Helga, Hilde and HelmutObersalzberg, the Goebbels family visit Adolf Hitler, "Der Führer" is back in Obersalzberg. Doctor Goebbels and his wife, accompanied by their children Helga, Hilde and Helmut

‘Hitler Was Centre of Our Lives’: Confessions of Nazi Criminals’ Wives

“I was unable to understand how the wives of all those sitting in the dock not only could meet them every day at home, sit with them at the same table and share their joys and sorrows, but also could whisper tender words to them, accept their caresses and love them and give birth to their children. I have never doubted that the wives were in the know about the criminal acts of their husbands”. From Tatyana Stupnikova’s book titled “Nothing but the truth. Nuremberg Trials. Memoirs of a Translator”.

Procès de Nuremberg, le box des interprètesProcès de Nuremberg, le box des interprètes

Ladies, Pugs, and a Slippery Floor: Unrecorded Nuremberg Curiosities

The participants of the Nuremberg trials remembered many details that would not become part of serious monographs about this epoch-making event. What kind of audience gathered in the courtroom? How did journalists try to outwit the guards? And why did an honest Soviet girl find herself in the arms of the defendant Göring?

Procès de Nuremberg, le box des interprètesProcès de Nuremberg, le box des interprètes

Ladies, Pugs, and a Slippery Floor: Unrecorded Nuremberg Curiosities

The participants of the Nuremberg trials remembered many details that would not become part of serious monographs about this epoch-making event. What kind of audience gathered in the courtroom? How did journalists try to outwit the guards? And why did an honest Soviet girl find herself in the arms of the defendant Göring?

Writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky and artists of the Kukryniksy collective Porfiry Krylov and Mikhail Kupriyanov (from right to left) sit in a courtroom. The Nuremberg trial.Writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky and artists of the Kukryniksy collective Porfiry Krylov and Mikhail Kupriyanov (from right to left) sit in a courtroom. The Nuremberg trial.

Everyman to Judge

In the final month of 1945, the International Military Tribunal was in session for just 15 working days – on 21 December the Court adjourned for the Christmas break. The judges and prosecutors went home; Chief American prosecutor Justice Robert Jackson took advantage of the holidays to see post-war Europe. A long nine months of litigation lay ahead. And the media summed up the start of the Nuremberg Trials.

Writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky and artists of the Kukryniksy collective Porfiry Krylov and Mikhail Kupriyanov (from right to left) sit in a courtroom. The Nuremberg trial.Writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky and artists of the Kukryniksy collective Porfiry Krylov and Mikhail Kupriyanov (from right to left) sit in a courtroom. The Nuremberg trial.

Everyman to Judge

In the final month of 1945, the International Military Tribunal was in session for just 15 working days – on 21 December the Court adjourned for the Christmas break. The judges and prosecutors went home; Chief American prosecutor Justice Robert Jackson took advantage of the holidays to see post-war Europe. A long nine months of litigation lay ahead. And the media summed up the start of the Nuremberg Trials.

Norway's Only Representative at Nuremberg Trials Dies in Plane Crash

On 18 December, a Royal Canadian Air Force aircraft crash-landed near a military airfield near Oslo. Only two of the 17 passengers survived. Among those killed was Hjalmar Steenstrup, a Norwegian representative at the Nuremberg Trials. He was set to appear before the tribunal six weeks later to testify about Germany’s occupation of Norway.

Norway's Only Representative at Nuremberg Trials Dies in Plane Crash

On 18 December, a Royal Canadian Air Force aircraft crash-landed near a military airfield near Oslo. Only two of the 17 passengers survived. Among those killed was Hjalmar Steenstrup, a Norwegian representative at the Nuremberg Trials. He was set to appear before the tribunal six weeks later to testify about Germany’s occupation of Norway.

Decree of the Führer, 1 March 1942Decree of the Führer, 1 March 1942

Nazi Leaders Bought Masterpieces at Massive Discounts

Alexander Makushin, Co-Chair of the East-Patriotic Foundation, Co-Chair of the Clio community of historians, Expert at the Russian Military Historical Society (RMHS), describes how the property of “enemies of the Reich” was seized.

Decree of the Führer, 1 March 1942Decree of the Führer, 1 March 1942

Nazi Leaders Bought Masterpieces at Massive Discounts

Alexander Makushin, Co-Chair of the East-Patriotic Foundation, Co-Chair of the Clio community of historians, Expert at the Russian Military Historical Society (RMHS), describes how the property of “enemies of the Reich” was seized.

Adolf Hitler

Key Evidence Against Hitler

On 26 November at 10 a.m., US lawyer Sidney Alderman appeared before the prosecutor’s stand. His mission was to prove to the International Military Tribunal that Germany had planned the war long before it began. Alderman presented the tribunal with what he called the Hossbach Protocol, “one of the most striking and revealing of all the captured documents which have come to hand”. Dmitry Astashkin, a specialist in Nazi war crimes and senior researcher at the Saint Petersburg Institute for History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, contributed to the understanding of the content and importance of the document.

Language selection