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Nazi criminals were convicted worldwide following the Nuremberg Trials

Source:

Alexander Zvyagintsev, “The Nuremberg Epilogue” / The newspaper “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” from 1 November 2016.

Interpreters at a session of the International Military Tribunal.Interpreters at a session of the International Military Tribunal.

The Nuremberg Trials Wouldn’t Have Taken Place Without Interpreters

At the Nuremberg Trials, everything was a first - including the debut of international simultaneous interpretation. The new practice of interpretation was invented and introduced at the tribunal - "simultaneous interpretation" was necessary for the new world, which was going to live on without war. Countries and people managed to come to an agreement in every sense: a common space for dialogue was provided by interpreters, who bore perhaps the greatest responsibility and who had never done anything like this before or since. The Soviet interpreters had a particularly difficult time - and they passed the unprecedented test with flying colours.

Interpreters at a session of the International Military Tribunal.Interpreters at a session of the International Military Tribunal.

The Nuremberg Trials Wouldn’t Have Taken Place Without Interpreters

At the Nuremberg Trials, everything was a first - including the debut of international simultaneous interpretation. The new practice of interpretation was invented and introduced at the tribunal - "simultaneous interpretation" was necessary for the new world, which was going to live on without war. Countries and people managed to come to an agreement in every sense: a common space for dialogue was provided by interpreters, who bore perhaps the greatest responsibility and who had never done anything like this before or since. The Soviet interpreters had a particularly difficult time - and they passed the unprecedented test with flying colours.

Serafima PonomarevaSerafima Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 3

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva headed to the front, wrote her name on the wall of the Reichstag, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The lady, now 94, told the “Nuremberg. Casus Pacis” project about her memories. We filmed and recorded Serafima Ponomareva's story. Her version of the events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the last in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter. Read and watch the first and the second episode to learn how Serafima Ponomareva ended up at the trials and what she experienced in the courtroom.

Serafima PonomarevaSerafima Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 3

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva headed to the front, wrote her name on the wall of the Reichstag, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The lady, now 94, told the “Nuremberg. Casus Pacis” project about her memories. We filmed and recorded Serafima Ponomareva's story. Her version of the events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the last in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter. Read and watch the first and the second episode to learn how Serafima Ponomareva ended up at the trials and what she experienced in the courtroom.

Serafima Grigorievna PonomarevaSerafima Grigorievna Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 2

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva, an MGIMO University student, headed to the front, sang patriotic songs with the troops at the recently-captured Reichstag on Victory Day, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The events of those months remain fresh in her memory despite her being 94 years old. We filmed and recorded Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva's story. Her version of events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the second in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter. Read and watch the first episode to learn how Serafima Ponomareva ended up at the trials.

Serafima Grigorievna PonomarevaSerafima Grigorievna Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 2

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva, an MGIMO University student, headed to the front, sang patriotic songs with the troops at the recently-captured Reichstag on Victory Day, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The events of those months remain fresh in her memory despite her being 94 years old. We filmed and recorded Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva's story. Her version of events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the second in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter. Read and watch the first episode to learn how Serafima Ponomareva ended up at the trials.

Serafima Grigorievna PonomarevaSerafima Grigorievna Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 1

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva, an MGIMO University student, headed to the front, sang patriotic songs with the troops at the recently-captured Reichstag on Victory Day, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The events of those months remain fresh in her memory despite her being 94 years old. We filmed and recorded Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva's story. Her version of events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the first in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter.

Serafima Grigorievna PonomarevaSerafima Grigorievna Ponomareva

‘I Told No One About the Trials’ Part 1

Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva, an MGIMO University student, headed to the front, sang patriotic songs with the troops at the recently-captured Reichstag on Victory Day, and became an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials at the age of 18. The events of those months remain fresh in her memory despite her being 94 years old. We filmed and recorded Serafima Grigorievna Ponomareva's story. Her version of events is presented without changes, uncut – as she remembered them. Today’s episode is the first in a multimedia series about the Nuremberg Trials interpreter.

Nuremberg trial, 1945Nuremberg trial, 1945

In-Between Genocide & Crimes Against Humanity

The Nuremberg Trials were the first of their kind in history, turning into a judgment against a regime and an entire era - the Nazi period that gripped Germany for one and a half decades. It gave a powerful impetus to the development of international law. In particular, it introduced the concept of "crimes against humanity" that we use today. The forging of a new term, a key one for the advancement of human rights, took place amid heated legal debates and even intrigues around the two concepts – "genocide" and "human rights". Georgy Bovt discusses the key legal collision for the modern world.

Nuremberg trial, 1945Nuremberg trial, 1945

In-Between Genocide & Crimes Against Humanity

The Nuremberg Trials were the first of their kind in history, turning into a judgment against a regime and an entire era - the Nazi period that gripped Germany for one and a half decades. It gave a powerful impetus to the development of international law. In particular, it introduced the concept of "crimes against humanity" that we use today. The forging of a new term, a key one for the advancement of human rights, took place amid heated legal debates and even intrigues around the two concepts – "genocide" and "human rights". Georgy Bovt discusses the key legal collision for the modern world.

Mikhail Loshchits and Tamara Grabovenko, 1946

That German Was Our Friend

My grandfather Mikhail Fedorovich Loshchits (1917-2015) went through the war from the first to the last day. He served as a military journalist on the Leningrad front. He was an instructor in the political department of a division, a secretary, and then an editor of the divisional newspaper “In the line of duty”. The story “On the Last Day of the War” tells a little-known episode – the surrender of a group of German troops ambushed in the so-called Courland Pocket in western Latvia. It was only on 8 May that fierce fighting stopped there, however, some units resisted until the end of the month.

‘I Recalled the Smoke of Auschwitz’

Pravda’s special Nuremberg correspondent, the celebrated writer Boris Polevoi (who would soon shoot to fame in the Soviet Union for his book “The Story of a Real Man”) knew much more about Auschwitz than many other eyewitnesses at the Nuremberg trials. He visited the camp two days after it had been liberated by the Red Army in January 1945 and interviewed prisoners and witnesses, afterwards writing a memo about it to the Political Department at the Front. On 15 April 1946, he published his impressions of the examination of Rudolf Höss, the former commander of Auschwitz Extermination Camp, by the Nuremberg tribunal on the same day in an article for the Soviet Information Bureau. The authors of “Nuremberg: Casus Pacis” found the article in the archives of Sovinformburo. The full version of Polevoi’s article about Auschwitz is published for the first time.

Plan is Not to Take Moscow, but To Surround it and Starve it to Death

“Nuremberg. Casus Pacis”, the Eurasian People’s Assembly cooperated with the president of the Digital History Foundation, the historian and researcher Egor Yakovlev, to create the documentary cycle “Genocide. Reich’s plan”. The Third Reich documents are being published in Russian for the first time and prove irrefutably that the Nazis’ crimes cannot be excused simply as excesses which occasionally occur in wartime or the private acts of a handful of unspeakably cruel people. The blockade of Leningrad, along with the mass executions in occupied territories and the extermination of prisoners of war, as well as the medical experiments in castration and sterilisation in concentration camps, were all a well-planned and concerted attempt to destroy Soviet ethnicity. Today we publish the first package of documents which shed light on Germany's true intentions towards the civilian population of the European part of the USSR: to kill up to 30 million people through artificially created starvation and unbearable living conditions.

Document: 300 Thousand Words for Soviet Radio Listeners

Mikhail Gus was a Soviet international radio journalist, publicist and art critic, who witnessed many of the events of the Second World War. He also worked at the Nuremberg Trials. Residents of the USSR listened to his reports from Nuremberg through special radio devices – so-called black "plates", which were in every apartment and at work places in those years. On 3 May 1946, he sent a telegram to the All-Union radio (the State Committee on Radio Broadcasting) with a report on five months of the work at the trials. And in 1971 he published a book of essays "Madness of the Swastika", in which he described many vivid episodes which he witnessed during the trial.
Gen. Alfred Jodl (right) and Gen. Wilhelm Keitel twist around to have a conference in the defendants box during the second day of the trials in Nuremberg, Germany, Nov. 21, 1945.

The “Nodding Donkey” and Its Strategist

Adolf Hitler had a complicated relationship with the military. The career officers, brought up in the tradition of the Kaiser's Germany, could hardly trust the Austrian corporal; many openly despised the Führer. Hitler faced military opposition many times – ranging from quiet sabotage to an attempted assassination. But some generals became the mainstay of the Nazi regime and at the same time - war criminals on an international scale. Two of them, Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl, signed Germany's surrender in World War II and appeared before the Nuremberg trials.
Mikhail Loshchits and Tamara Grabovenko, 1946

That German Was Our Friend

My grandfather Mikhail Fedorovich Loshchits (1917-2015) went through the war from the first to the last day. He served as a military journalist on the Leningrad front. He was an instructor in the political department of a division, a secretary, and then an editor of the divisional newspaper “In the line of duty”. The story “On the Last Day of the War” tells a little-known episode – the surrender of a group of German troops ambushed in the so-called Courland Pocket in western Latvia. It was only on 8 May that fierce fighting stopped there, however, some units resisted until the end of the month.

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